It is a material used in many high-temperature applications. Salts of [Re2Cl8]2− feature a quadruple metal-metal bond. [17] Rhenium-molybdenum alloys are superconductive at 10 K; tungsten-rhenium alloys are also superconductive[18] around 4–8 K, depending on the alloy. [45] The rising demand for military jet engines and the constant supply made it necessary to develop superalloys with a lower rhenium content. It also has one of the highest boiling points of all elements, and the highest among stable elements. We offer low pricing and great lead times on all our materials, and we're capable of supplying custom materials per any specs/drawings you provide us with. These alloys contain up to 6% rhenium, making jet engine construction the largest single use for the element. [27] The structures of these compounds often feature extensive Re-Re bonding, which is characteristic of this metal in oxidation states lower than VII. Due to increases in rhenium recycling and a drop in demand for rhenium in catalysts, the price of rhenium has dropped to US$2,844 per kilogram (US$1,290 per pound) as of July 2018. [13] It was estimated in 1968 that 75% of the rhenium metal in the United States was used for research and the development of refractory metal alloys. The treatment uses the isotpes properties as a beta emitter for brachytherapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. [65][66], 188Re is also being used experimentally in a novel treatment of pancreatic cancer where it is delivered by means of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Perrhenate salts can be converted to tetrathioperrhenate by the action of ammonium hydrosulfide. [35] Chile has the world's largest rhenium reserves, part of the copper ore deposits, and was the leading producer as of 2005. [11], Rhenium is generally considered to have been discovered by Walter Noddack, Ida Noddack, and Otto Berg in Germany. Its catalysts are used in hydrogenation of fine chemicals. In bulk form and at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the element resists alkalis, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, dilute (but not concentrated) nitric acid, and aqua regia. The second-most important use is as a catalyst: rhenium is an excellent catalyst for hydrogenation and isomerization, and is used for example in catalytic reforming of naphtha for use in gasoline (rheniforming process). It was named after the river Rhine in Europe. The available energy for this beta decay (2.6 keV) is one of the lowest known among all radionuclides. Need help with rhenium? We can create custom parts for you with custom thicknesses and diameters, and we can also speak with you more about what you can use rhenium for and how it will react with other chemicals during manufacturing. Rhenium shows in its compounds a wide variety of oxidation states ranging from −1 to +7. Element 113 was also discovered by a team of Japanese scientists and was named in respectful homage to Ogawa's work. Gasoline producers and jet engine manufacturers have both turned to rhenium often over the years and have found rhenium to be an incredibly effective element. Rhenium does not occur free in nature or as a compound in a distinct mineral species. It can be prepared by many routes, a typical method is the reaction of Re2O7 and tetramethyltin: Analogous alkyl and aryl derivatives are known. Prices for the metal rose rapidly in early 2008, from $1000–$2000 per kg in 2003–2006 to over $10,000 in February 2008. [36] It was only recently that the first rhenium mineral was found and described (in 1994), a rhenium sulfide mineral (ReS2) condensing from a fumarole on Kudriavy volcano, Iturup island, in the Kuril Islands. Rhenium metal is created while refining Molybdenum. [27][35] Rhenium(VII) oxide and perrhenic acid readily dissolve in water; they are leached from flue dusts and gasses and extracted by precipitating with potassium or ammonium chloride as the perrhenate salts, and purified by recrystallization. (2002) “Methyltrioxorhenium” in, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", "Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks", "The High-Frequency Spectra of the Elements, Part II", "Names and symbols of the elements with atomic numbers 113, 115, 117 and 118 (IUPAC Recommendations 2016)", "The Properties of Superconducting Mo-Re Alloys", "The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties", "Analysis: Super hot metal rhenium may reach "platinum prices, "Fourth generation nickel base single crystal superalloy", "Development of a Next-Generation Ni-base Single Crystal Superalloy", "Joint Development of a Fourth Generation Single Crystal Superalloy", "Design in an Era of Constrained Resources", "The Oxidation State of Rhenium and Its Role in Platinum-Rhenium", "The Tungsten-188 and Rhenium-188 Generator Information", "Personalized irradiation therapy for NMSC by rhenium-188 skin cancer therapy: a long-term retrospective study",, Chemical elements predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 November 2020, at 20:57. [14][15], Rhenium is a silvery-white metal with one of the highest melting points of all elements, exceeded by only tungsten and carbon. Its reduction with sodium amalgam gives Na[Re(CO)5] with rhenium in the formal oxidation state −1. The most common oxide is the volatile yellow Re2O7. Call us at 800-237-9012 today to place an order or to ask any questions you might have. It is, however, widely spread throughout the earth's crust to the extent of about 0.001 ppm. As a result of this, rhenium is often used for its heat-resistant properties. [25] Tetrathioperrhenate anion [ReS4]− is possible.[26]. Produced in Chile, Kazakhstan, and the United States, Rhenium is one of the densest metals, says 911 Metallurgist. [27] The sulfides are ReS2 and Re2S7. It also has the third highest melting point, which is why it is added to nickel-based superalloys as a means of improving the alloy’s temperature strength. [42][43] The metal form is prepared by reducing ammonium perrhenate with hydrogen at high temperatures:[25], Rhenium is added to high-temperature superalloys that are used to make jet engine parts, using 70% of the worldwide rhenium production. There are 33 other unstable isotopes recognized, ranging from 160Re to 194Re, the longest-lived of which is 183Re with a half-life of 70 days. This is useful for radiopharmacy, where it is difficult to work with technetium – especially the 99m isotope used in medicine – due to its expense and short half-life. Rhenium can cause superalloys to become microstructurally unstable, forming undesirable TCP (topologically close packed) phases. [8] In 1908, Japanese chemist Masataka Ogawa announced that he had discovered the 43rd element and named it nipponium (Np) after Japan (Nippon in Japanese). The high-temperature stability is also improved. [40], Commercial rhenium is extracted from molybdenum roaster-flue gas obtained from copper-sulfide ores. We have experience working with those in aerospace technology and petroleum refinery and have helped them secure rhenium in the past, and we would be more than happy to use our experience with rhenium to tell you more about it. Rhenium is an extremely rare metal that has a range of different characteristics that make it ideal for many purposes today. It has the highest boiling point of any of the elements on the periodic table, and it has one of the highest melting points. [67] The 188Re isotope is also used for the Rhenium-SCT (Skin Cancer Therapy). For example, the newer CFM International CFM56 high-pressure turbine (HPT) blades will use Rene N515 with a rhenium content of 1.5% instead of Rene N5 with 3%. These are white, water-soluble compounds. A distinctive derivative of rhenium is nonahydridorhenate, originally thought to be the rhenide anion, Re−, but actually containing the ReH2−9 anion in which the oxidation state of rhenium is +7. (1963) "Ammonium Perrhenate" in, Hudson, A. Other calculated information was obtained by Henry Moseley in 1914. Among others the new superalloys are EPM-102 (with 3% Ru) and TMS-162 (with 6% Ru),[48] as well as TMS-138[49] and TMS-174. This lifetime can be greatly affected by the charge state of rhenium atom. [45], The nickel-based superalloys have improved creep strength with the addition of rhenium. Chemical properties of Rhenium are similar to Manganese. [16], Its usual commercial form is a powder, but this element can be consolidated by pressing and sintering in a vacuum or hydrogen atmosphere. [58] Those filaments are widely used in mass spectrometers, ion gauges[59] and photoflash lamps in photography. [46] Second-generation alloys contain 3%; these alloys were used in the engines for the F-15 and F-16, whereas the newer single-crystal third-generation alloys contain 6% of rhenium; they are used in the F-22 and F-35 engines. [55] One application for the tungsten-rhenium alloys is X-ray sources. [50][51], For 2006, the consumption is given as 28% for General Electric, 28% Rolls-Royce plc and 12% Pratt & Whitney, all for superalloys, whereas the use for catalysts only accounts for 14% and the remaining applications use 18%. However, recent analysis indicated the presence of rhenium (element 75), not element 43,[9] although this reinterpretation has been questioned by Eric Scerri. [44], Rhenium has a high melting point and a low vapor pressure similar to tantalum and tungsten. [60], Rhenium in the form of rhenium-platinum alloy is used as catalyst for catalytic reforming, which is a chemical process to convert petroleum refinery naphthas with low octane ratings into high-octane liquid products. However, rhenium oxide Re2O7 has poor stability (sublimes at ~360 °C) and therefore is removed during the discharge. Methylrhenium trioxide ("MTO"), CH3ReO3 is a volatile, colourless solid has been used as a catalyst in some laboratory experiments. They both have similar penetration depth in tissue (5 mm for 186Re and 11 mm for 188Re), but 186Re has advantage of longer lifetime (90 hours vs. 17 hours). The largest producer of rhenium in the world is Chile, where the largest copper ore deposits of rhenium are found. Rhenium metal is created while refining Molybdenum. Terminal alkynes yield the corresponding acid or ester, internal alkynes yield diketones, and alkenes give epoxides. With an estimated average concentration of 1 part per billion (ppb), rhenium is one of the rarest elements in the Earth's crust. [12] In 1928 they were able to extract 1 g of the element by processing 660 kg of molybdenite. Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals, Aerospace Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry, Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility. The oxychlorides are most common, and include ReOCl4, ReOCl3. [5], Rhenium (Latin: Rhenus meaning: "Rhine")[6] was the second last-discovered of the elements that have a stable isotope (other new elements discovered in nature since then, such as francium, are radioactive). In particular, the discharge that occurs during electrical switching oxidizes the contacts. [56] Rhenium tungsten alloys are also applied as thermocouples to measure temperatures up to 2200 °C.


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