The larvae aggregate in colonies and spin silken nests, which enlarge until the fourth instar when the definitive winter nest is built. You can find more information about the use of cookies in our Privacy Statement and Cookie Statement. i%���(�q.e%��ϙXsp6���tQ}�nv�Cu����Y�99�F���Mk�|�zy9�� �t-�W �%r��\��Ĥ�ǃ����bU�a�O�in™&Urפ\vF�AtD"Fg�P �B��,G�@C�N The pine processionary moth (PPM), Thaumetopoea pityocampa, is not known to exist in the United States, but if introduced, it may pose a serious threat to pine and cedar trees (Cedrus spp.*). The life cycle of T. pityocampa is normally annual but may extend over 2 years at high altitude or in northern latitudes. ���_����(Q��q�!|X åGȵI5(��s�5�L+)-h�� The pupation 'processions' occur in late winter and early spring. X,��q�n���i��J�����N��}�P�L���A�aL��8�3C[�2fS9�'�d�x�2&��LY� �k�]Lp���LH#��9�XwV3�!BX�1 h��X�n�6���w Want to know more about our company and products? 148 0 obj <>stream h�̖m��@ǿ�|wgg8|��r�RQ_D�եX�9��o�Ib6�R��Ԧ1������og�A�E�|3�3� )��|EN���TD`(��ݝ'������e+~/a^��c-�?��m��l8d���w�䴒 ���f����I\��c�yV�^��4y�:���7W-f��]B�51�Y�n}��yʧ�|�{�ӅG��t���Y*@]�b»c�%~a�j����Z���&p������Ȝ��d���J��M�ҟrq�h���x->���o�E'�:ť�{�q-�yU����X���ը4�'��rϑ1-2�E�6dT���L�% Defoliation damage and the presence of caterpillars are important on amenity trees in recreational and residential areas, The caterpillars have urticating hairs from the third instar onwards, which may cause allergies. The integument and hairs that clothe the body vary considerably with different provenances. The cylindrical egg masses range in length from 4 to 5 cm. Get in touch with one of our experts.We produce our products and solutions for professional growers in horticulture. The pupal stage can be prolonged considerably by diapause. Some pupae may not yield adults in the year of pupation, the diapause period extending until the following year or longer. The larvae develop through five instars and the full-grown caterpillar is about 40 mm in length. The table sets out the life cycle of OPM. These effects occur not only when the caterpillars are present, but also during the following summer because of the persistence of allergenic hairs in the remains of winter nests. h�b```f``e`b`Ȟ� Ȁ �@1f�7������9߁�a���K�;�30�#��0��fbv��/��L��θ���`���$*��n����@� E2� Development lasts 6 months under the most favourable conditions, but the fourth and fifth instars may be prolonged in the winter. The larvae of this high-consequence defoliator strip trees bare of foliage, leaving them vulnerable to other pests, diseases, and environmental stressors. After the second moult, the caterpillar assumes its definitive appearance and the reddish dorsal urticating hair patches on each body segment appear, arranged in pairs. The female moth has a wingspan of 36-49 mm; the wingspan of the male is 31-39 mm. These hairy caterpillars live in communal webs and march in columns to their food source. Pine processionary (Thaumetopea pityocampa) is a very particular kind of moth; its life cycle includes, of course, a caterpillar stage, which has a well-known behavior.During the process of metamorphosis, these dangerous insects walk down from the pines where they had nested in columns, creating an actual procession of caterpillars.. Domestic and farm animals may also be affected. The pine processionary moth is a highly damaging pine defoliator, extending its range northwards and upwards in response to winter warming. ���B��V%i ����O_�/~�y�! The pupae are about 20 mm in length, oval, and of a pale brownish-yellow colour that later changes to dark reddish-brown. First stage larvae hatch from eggs in April; Moths will lay eggs on multiple oak trees Koppert uses cookies to improve your experience on our site. xڵXے�H}�W��D�(�'O�� �nOXo�>TCI��� 51 0 obj <>stream 0 �u � endstream endobj 150 0 obj <>stream Get the latest news and information about your crops directly in your mailbox. The Pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), is a major pest of pine trees around the Mediterranean Sea. h�\�� �0��V�w��D9Z�����qA���`(`[�Z΀̌�`8�܎�z@�y8����V��0~� 42 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<513311758F93D16B12D7EC4D9C117BB4>]/Index[34 18]/Info 33 0 R/Length 66/Prev 474111/Root 35 0 R/Size 52/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream This means that all imports of pine plants must be accompanied by a plant passport certifying the plants have been grown in a nursery or area that is free from pine processionary moth. The pine processionary moth T. pityocampa is currently showing an expansion northwards and higher in altitude in Europe due to increased winter temperatures (Hodar and Zamora, 2004, Battisti et al., 2005, Robinet et al., 2007). The body of the first-instar caterpillar is dull apple-green. At the third instar urticating hair patches appear. %PDF-1.6 %���� The head capsule is black. The larvae of the Pine processionary moth cause severe defoliation, reducing the viability of oak trees. h�bbd```b``j�� ����� ���1 �?��l2��w^�� �k+X=#Q�Ƶ? The hindwings are white, grey-fringed, with a characteristic dark spot in the anal region. Both sexes have a hairy thorax. %%EOF endstream endobj startxref "uC_���o�z�h�Q�xe���2Hb�5Rt^l�W�#�T����rm�j%:X2N�[o>ޯ� i�H�b�6�|��1N�>_*Zro��y[M?-�p�k�h읠��. Below is a table that shows the recommended treatment options for the life-cycle stages of development of the oak processionary moth. �#E ������q�=��j�5؞]�γ'�"�A�Վt�bK47�`#5�9̯���,�.���:�8�@…�' K)��:4\Fa���a��&$6�D�)�)������x. It is most conspicuously damaging on pine plantations, or amenity pines. They help us to understand how our site is used. The UK was given protected zone status in 2017 by the EU Plant Health Directive for pine processionary moth. %PDF-1.4 %���� It is most conspicuously damaging on pine plantations, or amenity pines. A few hours after emergence and mating, the females oviposit on the nearest pines. �e>d�w�I�m׎� U'Of�̬�H��?��*��o��:���T� ��U2.EVA^�b�a���#�AX��v���?_l�\}ܬ~�d,� �D� �i������U E��9v0#L؎0��%�"��2*ѐ�ޣv����L�����G�6 ވr��m���㿴���g����;����������L�G��L���a�Ka�j; ���p�&d� b�J����BȬ�h��*���y�1fA,Ev�����3�` Life cycle and appearance of Pine processionary moth �Lj/L3i=�#.�X�����I�.��Ŧw�0�:����lS.�����r�{�x�.��/��;39N}�V���?-V,���A�~^U����9.���������ײ7���~S���e3]�"�`ۈ�Y�ܓ�2?�ߏ ��A�I�s5�6��~N�aN�"^�Ӻ%X�~�����N|aM7�g!y�� ��x��y��X)��O��у���w��*�~�i��/_bOONNo�n���hS̪��ߦ��j��� �~�}���lm�ؐ��f�^�`�f��O�����Q���iU,N����YQ-"�e��bWs�wj��A�= M��ǜp ��znE-40�͑vZ��D��Hk�eM�Qc��k�Qtc0�@������s�� Z�V�� They are covered with the scales of the female anal tuft, which mimics the pine shoots. Defoliation damage is extremely serious in young reforested areas where it may lead to death of trees, directly or as a consequence of attack by bark beetles or other wood-boring insects. Rather than during the regular winter period, larval development of this novel population occurs during the summer. In general, the integument is darker in colder areas and varies from dull bluish-grey to black. The nests of caterpillars on infested trees are clearly visible. The winter pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae), provides a classic example of an insect feeding on mature foliage that does not need to be synchronized with Correspondence: Laura Berardi, University of Padova, Department DAFNAE- Life cycle Egg stage. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google, I agree to the terms and conditions about the privacy of my personal data. In its mature larval stage, it is about a 3/8-inch long brown caterpillar with a black head. For more information, please see our, By signing up for our newsletter, you accept our, Click here for all locations and suppliers. Processionary caterpillar, larval stage characteristic of the small insect family Thaumetopoeidae (order Lepidoptera), sometimes classified as part of the prominent moth family (Notodontidae). During the movement each larva lays down a silken thread. The Pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), is a major pest of pine trees around the Mediterranean Sea. ... Life Cycle: The life cycle of PPM is normally annual but may extend over 2 years at high altitude or in northern latitudes for part or the whole of the 0 The eggs are laid in cylindrical masses around pairs of needles; most eggs masses are laid on the peripheral shoots of the crown and contain 70-300 eggs. prohibitive mortality, or preclude the completion of the life cycle. The forewings are dull ashen-grey; the veins, margins and three transverse bands are darker. During this time it must mate and lay its eggs in the foliage of a pine tree; a single female can lay up to 300 tiny eggs and it takes around a month for them to hatch. The pine processionary moth hatches around May to July and only lives for about a day. Since 1997, a population of the Pine Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa exhibited a shifted life cycle in a restricted area of a managed pine forest, at the central west coast of Portugal.


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